Genus & Species Common Name Family Family Common Name
Abies. grandis (Dougl.) Forbes Grand Fir, or Lowland, Pinaceae Pine
Family
Lowland White, silver,
or Balsam Fir

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CHARACTERISTICS
A tree up to 90 m tall, with long drooping branches which are puberulent
on the young growth; leaves 3.5-5 Cm long, about3 m wide, forming flat
sprays, deeply grooved below; staminate cones yellowish; mature ovulate
cones 12-18 cm long, greenish; scales broadly fan-shaped, 3 cm broad,
2.5 cm long; bracts scarcely half as long, irregularly toothed and
short-pointed; seeds about 8 mm long, their wings about twice as long.
W. Mont. to B. C., across N. Idaho and south to Calif.

leaves
leaves 3.5-5 cm long, about 3 m wide, blunt to notched, forming flat
sprays, deeply grooved below with two stripes of stomata but with no
stomata stripes on the flat, shallowly channeled upper surface;
small resin ducts are located less that 1/4th of the leaf width in from
the margin just above the lower epidermis;

Cones
staminate cones yellowish; mature ovulate cones are erect and their
scales fall off when seeds are shed; 5-10 cm long, up to 4 cm wide,
greenish; scales broadly fan-shaped, 3 cm broad, 2.5 cm long; bracts
scarcely half as long, irregularly toothed and short-pointed;

seeds
brownish, 8-9 mm long, shorter than the wing

habitat
from sea level to about 7000 ft elevation in the Rocky Mountains

distribution
Vancouver Island to British Columbia south to California, east to
western Idaho and western Montana to eastern Oregon.

other
Grand Fir hybridizes with White Fir in eastern Washington and Oregon.
needles can be made into a tea which is diuretic or can be used as an
expectorant or burned as an incense..
The bark can be used externally as an astringent externally with some
disinfectant properties or internally for intestinal tract, lung, or
skin/mucosa problems.
The pitch, bark, and needles can be made into a tea which can be used
as a wash, or drunk several times a day.
Rodents, birds and game eat the oil rich seeds. Grouse and deer eat
the needles during the winter months.
The wood is soft because of the trees rapid growth and is not widely
used for lumber, but can be made into pulp.