This species ranges from central Alaska south and east across most of southern Canada to Nova Scotia, extending into the U.S. through the Pacific Northwest to central California and along the Rockies; also from New England along the Appalachians to northern Georgia. It occurs through much of Idaho.
It occurs along streams, in coniferous forests, and in sunny openings.
Caterpillars feed on the leaves of several tree and shrub species, including
alder (Alnus spp.), birch (Betula spp.), aspen (Populus spp.),
currant (Ribes spp.), and wild rhododendron (Rhododendron spp.).
Adult: Butterflies drink flower nectar and may also use the liquids from mud, carrion, and dung as sources of nutrition.
There is one generation of caterpillars each summer through most of the range, but there may be two in California. Caterpillars rest on the undersides of leaves. Butterflies emerging late in the season overwinter in a physiological state called diapause. They may come out occasionally on warmer winter days, and emerge in spring to mate and lay eggs.
Males perch to wait for receptive females. Females lay pale green eggs singly on the leaves and twigs of host plants.
|Idaho Status:||Unprotected nongame species.|
G5; populations are widespread, abundant, and secure.
Opler, P. A., H. Pavulaan, and R. E. Stanford. 1995. Butterflies of North America. Jamestown, North Dakota, USA: Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center Home Page. http://www.npwrc.usgs.gov/resource/distr/lepid/bflyusa/bflyusa.htm (Version 05Nov98).
Opler, P. A. and A. B.Wright. 1999. A Field Guide to the Western Butterflies. Second Edition. Peterson Field Guide Series. Houghton Mifflin Company, New York, New York, USA, 540 pp.
Pyle, R. M. 1981. National Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Butterflies. Alfred A. Knopf, Inc., New York, New York, USA, 924 pp.
Scott, J. A. 1986. The Butterflies of North America. Stanford University Press, Stanford, California, USA, 583 pp.
Stanford, R. E. and P. A. Opler. 1993. Atlas of Western U.S.A. Butterflies (Including Adjacent Parts of Canada and Mexico). Published by authors, Denver, Colorado, USA, 275 pp.