The species is holarctic, which means it can be found in the northern temperate regions of the entire Northern Hemisphere. In North America, it ranges from Alaska and northern Canada south to the Canadian border and into the northern sections of Minnesota, Wisconsin, and Michigan. There are also isolated populations in the Rockies, in central Colorado and in northeastern Wyoming. In Idaho, it has currently been documented only in Fremont County.
This is a species of bogs and arctic tundra.
Caterpillars feed on the leaves of willows (Salix spp.), birch (Betula
spp.), cranberry (Vaccinium spp.), and bog rosemary (Rosmarinus
Adult: Butterflies are known to visit flowers of Labrador tea (Ledum glandulasum), but only rarely.
There is one generation of caterpillars each summer. These caterpillars overwinter in a physiological state called diapause and then pupate in the spring. Adults generally fly from June to mid-July.
Males patrol the low portions of willow bogs for receptive females. Females lay their eggs on willows and are partly dependent on old beaver dams for the abundance of healthy willows at such sites.
|Idaho Status:||Unprotected nongame species.|
G5; populations are widespread, abundant, and secure.
Opler, P. A., H. Pavulaan, and R. E. Stanford. 1995. Butterflies of North America. Jamestown, North Dakota, USA: Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center Home Page. http://www.npwrc.usgs.gov/resource/distr/lepid/bflyusa/bflyusa.htm (Version 05Nov98).
Opler, P. A. and A. B.Wright. 1999. A Field Guide to the Western Butterflies. Second Edition. Peterson Field Guide Series. Houghton Mifflin Company, New York, New York, USA, 540 pp.
Pyle, R. M. 1981. National Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Butterflies. Alfred A. Knopf, Inc., New York, New York, USA, 924 pp.
Scott, J. A. 1986. The Butterflies of North America. Stanford University Press, Stanford, California, USA, 583 pp.
Stanford, R. E. and P. A. Opler. 1993. Atlas of Western U.S.A. Butterflies (Including Adjacent Parts of Canada and Mexico). Published by authors, Denver, Colorado, USA, 275 pp.