Picoides tridactylus
(Three-toed Woodpecker)


Order: Piciformes
Order Description: Woodpeckers
Family: Picidae
Family Description: Woodpeckers

Physical Description:
Size: 8-9.5" (20-24cm). A black and white woodpecker. White ladder pattern on a black back. Black head with white facial stripes. Male has a yellow cap on its head. Black wings, rump and tail. Barred sides and white belly.

Similar Species- The Black-backed Woodpecker is larger and lacks the ladder pattern on its back. Hairy and Downy woodpeckers lack the barred sides and have a red cap.

Song:
Call is a squeaky pik! Also gives a dry rattle. Drumming similar to Black- backed woodpecker, sounds like a drum roll, increasing in tempo at the end.

Distribution:
Breeds, often locally, from northwestern and central Alaska to northern Saskatchewan and northern Labrador, and south to central Washington, central Arizona, south-central New Mexico, central Saskatchewan, northeastern Minnesota, northern New England, and southern Quebec. Wanders irregularly or casually north and south.

Habitat:
Found in coniferousClick word for definition forests (primarily spruce/fir and lodgepole, less frequently in mixed forests). Found also in willow thickets along streams, in high-elevation aspen groves, in swamps, and in burned-over coniferous forests.

Diet:
Eats mainly wood-boring insects, but will also eat spiders, berries, and cambium.

Ecology:
Excavates cavities in tree or standing snag. Forages on tree bark. Few nests have been found in Idaho. In Oregon, home range size varied from 52-300 ha, depending on habitat quality.

Reproduction:
Both sexes incubateClick word for definition 4 eggs (usually), for 14 days. Young are tended by both parents until fledging at 22-26 days.

Conservation:
Element Code: ABNYF07080
Status: Protected nongame species
Global Rank: G5
State Rank: S3
National Rank: N5

Important State References:
No references are available at this time.


Design by Ean Harker©1999, 2000.
Written by Jason Karl, 2000.