4 1/2-5 1/4" (11-13 cm). Most extensively yellow warbler. Almost completely yellow; wings and tail darker olive-yellow. Males have rust-colored streaks on breast. Both sexes have black eyes and bill.
Similar Species- Female Wilson's Warbler, Orange-crowned Warbler
Song begins with three similar notes followed by a varied, emphatic ending of notes.
Breeds from northern Alaska, east across northern Canada to Labrador, and south to Panama and northern coast of South America. Winters from southern California, southern Arizona, northern Mexico, and southern Florida, south to central Peru, northern Bolivia, and Amazonian Brazil.
Found in open scrub, second-growth woodlands, thickets, farmlands, and gardens, especially near water. During migration and in winter, found in open woodlands, plantations, brushy areas, and forest edges. Several Idaho studies have found this species to be a riparian habitat generalist.
Eats insects (especially caterpillars) and spiders. In southern range, occasionally eats small fruits or nectar.
Takes most food from vegetation; may fly from perch to capture prey. Builds cup-shaped nest in shrub. Territories as small as 0.16 ha have been reported. Migrants are solitary and territorial in winter. Species is one of most common cowbird hosts. Reduced grazing apparently results in increased population size.
Female incubates 3-6 eggs (usually 4-5), for 11-12 days. Young are tended by both parents, and leave nest at 9- 12 days.
|Status:||Protected nongame species|
Douglas, D.C., J.T. Ratti, R.A. Black, and J.R. Alldredge. 1992. Avian habitat associations in riparian zones of Idaho's Centennial Mountains. Wilson Bull. 104:485-500.