4 1/2-5 3/4" (11-15 cm). Slightly mottled gray with yellow throat and under tail; pale belly. Male has black mask, yellow extending down breast from throat, and yellow tinged wings. Female has pale yellow eyebrow.
Similar Species- Nashville Warblers, Yellow- breasted Chat
Song is a repeated whichity-whichity-whichity-which.
Breeds from portions of Alaska and Canada, south to northern Baja California, southern Mexico, southern Texas, Gulf Coast, and southern Florida. Winters from northern California, southwestern U.S., southern Texas, Gulf states and South Carolina, south throughout Mexico, Central America and portions of South America. Species may be the most abundant warbler.
Found in marshes (especially cattail marshes), thickets near water, bogs, brushy pastures, old fields, and, locally, undergrowth of humid forests. During migration and in winter, found in brushy and shrubby areas in both moist and arid regions. Idaho study found species favored wet, low, willow habitats.
Eats various small invertebrates.
Nests in shrub. Forages in low plants. Southeastern Massachusetts study reported population density of about 1.5- 2.5 territories/ha. Species is frequent cowbird host.
Female incubates 3-6 eggs (usually 4), for 11-13 days. Young are tended by both parents, and leave nest at 8- 10 days. polygyny has been observed. Female usually produces 2 broods/yr.
|Status:||Protected nongame species|
Douglas, D.C., J.T. Ratti, R.A. Black, and J.R. Alldredge. 1992. Avian habitat associations in riparian zones of Idaho's Centennial Mountains. Wilson Bull. 104:485-500.