Setophaga ruticilla
(American Redstart)


Order: Passeriformes
Order Description: Passerines
Family: Parulidae
Family Description: Wood Warblers

Physical Description:
4 1/2-5 3/4" (11-15 cm). Adult male is very black except for orange wing and tail patches, orange sides of breast, and white belly. Female is gray with yellow patches.

Song:
Thin, high-pitched notes ending in a slur.

Distribution:
Breeds across portions of Alaska and Canada, south to Oregon, Arizona, Oklahoma, northern Gulf Coast, and Carolinas. Winters from southern Texas (rarely), south through Mexico (mainly coastally), and into Central and South America.

Habitat:
Found in open deciduousClick word for definition and mixed woodlands, second growth and tall shrubbery, orchards, shade trees, thickets, parks, gardens, and small groves. During migrationClick word for definition and in winter, found in various forest, woodland, scrub, and thicket habitats.

Diet:
Eats mostly forest tree insects, but will also eat spiders and some fruits and seeds.

Ecology:
Nests in low, deciduous tree or shrub, sometimes in deserted nest of other species; nests are commonly parasitized by Brown-headed Cowbird. Captures prey during aerial sallies; sometimes gleans or hovers. Solitary in winter. Defends winter territory. densityClick word for definition in winter (in Jamaica study) was 10- 51/10 ha, which was comparable to breeding densities reported for eastern U.S., but greater than densities reported for other sites in Caribbean and Mexico (0-17/10 ha).

Reproduction:
Female incubatesClick word for definition 2-5 eggs (usually 4), for 12-13 days. Young are tended by both parents, and leave nest at 8-9 days.

Conservation:
Element Code: ABPBX06010
Status: Protected nongame species
Global Rank: G5
State Rank: S4
National Rank: N5B,NZN

Important State References:
No references are available at this time.


Photo by C. S. Robbins, ©2002.
Design by Ean Harker©1999, 2000.
Written by Jason Karl, 2000.