6 1/2-7 3/4" (17-20 cm). Olive-brown above; buff eye-ring. buff below with olive-brown spotting on breast; flanks darker.
Similar Species- Hermit Thrush and Veery
Upward spiraling, flute-like song.
Breeds from portions of Alaska and Canada, south to southern California, northern New Mexico, northern Nebraska, eastern Montana, northern Minnesota, northern New Engand, and Virginia. Winters in portions of South America, and in small numbers to northern Mexico.
Found in dense, tall shrubbery, coniferous woodlands (especailly spruce), aspen/poplar forests, second growth, and willow and alder thickets. During migration and in winter, also found in deciduous forests, open woodlands, humid lowland forests, scrub and brush (mostly mid-story or lower, but well above ground). Most common in mountains. Preliminary results of northern Idaho study indicated species was more abundant in continuous stands of old- growth cedar/hemlock than in fragmented or selectively harvested stands. In southeastern Idaho, species was strongly associated with cottonwood patches adjacent to natural upland vegetation as opposed to agriculture, and preferred cottonwood forests with willow subcanopies.
Eats insects and other invertebrates, small fruits, and seeds. frugivorous in migration and during winter.
Builds cup-shaped nest low in coniferous tree or shrub. Solitary when not breeding, but found in loose flocks in migration (sometimes concentrated in large numbers near fruiting trees and shrubs). Takes food from foliage. May hover and drop to ground while foraging. Preliminary results of Idaho study conducted in cottonwood forests found species was negatively associated with grazed areas.
|Status:||Protected nongame species|
Saab, V.A. 1996. Influence of spatial scale and land management on habitat use by breeding birds in cottonwood forests of southeastern Idaho. Ph.D. Dissertation, Univ. Colorado, Boulder. 140pp.