Junco hyemalis
(Dark-eyed [Oregon] Junco)


Order: Passeriformes
Order Description: Passerines
Family: Emberizidae
Family Description: Blackbirds, Orioles, & Sparrows

Physical Description:
5-6 1/4" (13-16 cm). Has black hood and brownish-gray body. Female has lighter hood.

Similar Species- Yellow-eyed Junco

Song:
Loose, musical trill and a sharp tik.

Distribution:
Breeds across Alaska and portions of Canada, south to northern Baja California, central Arizona, western Texas, Appalachians to northern Georgia, and southern New England. Winters from southern Canada, south through U.S. to southern Florida, southern Texas, and northern Mexico.

Habitat
Found in coniferousClick word for definition and deciduousClick word for definition forests, forest edges, clearings, bogs, open woodlands, brushy areas adjacent to forests, and burned-over lands. During migrationClick word for definition and in winter, found in variety of open woodlands, and in brushy and grassy habitats.

Diet:
Feeds on seeds throughout year. Also eats insects during breeding season, and waste grain in fall and winter.

Ecology:
Builds cup-shaped nest on ground, frequently against vertical surface. Occasionally builds in tree, shrub, or on building. Forages on ground, or takes insects in air. Forms small flocks in winter; may forage with other species (e.g., chickadees, sparrows). Species is 1 of 7 neotropical migrants thought to be declining in Idaho.

Reproduction:
clutchClick word for definition size varies from 3-5 eggs. Incubation lasts about 11-12 days.

Conservation:
Element Code: ABPBXA5020
Status: Protected nongame species
Global Rank: G5
State Rank: S5,NTMB
National Rank: N5

Important State References:
Douglas, D.C., J.T. Ratti, R.A. Black, and J.R. Alldredge. 1992. Avian habitat associations in riparian zones of Idaho's Centennial Mountains. Wilson Bull. 104:485- 500.


Design by Ean Harker©1999, 2000.
Written by Jason Karl, 2000.