Regulus calendula
(Ruby-crowned Kinglet)


Order: Passeriformes
Order Description: Passerines
Family: Regulidae
Family Description: Kinglets

Physical Description:
3 3/4-4 1/2" (10-11 cm). Olive gray with black and white wing bars and on tail; more yellowish below and paler on throat; white eye-ring. Males have red crownClick word for definition patch.

Similar Species- Golden-crowned Kinglet, Hutton's Vireo

Song:
Song begins with several high, thin notes followed by a few lower notes and then a rising warble.

Distribution:
Breeds from northwestern Alaska, east across portions of Canada, and south to central New Mexico and southern California. Winters from southern British Columbia, Virginia, and Indiana, south to southern Florida, Gulf Coast, and through Mexico to Guatemala.

Habitat:
Found in coniferousClick word for definition forests and woodlands. During migrationClick word for definition and in winter, found in deciduousClick word for definition woodlands, shrubs and thickets. May also be found in old fields, gardens, yards, and parks. Northern Idaho study conducted in hemlock-grand fir found this species associated with older conifer stands.

Diet:
Feeds primarily on insects and other small invertebrates (e.g., wasps, ants, beetles, moths, spiders, and pseudoscorpions). Will also eat some berries and seeds and drink sap.

Ecology:
Builds hanging nest on tree limb. Forages at branch tips in trees and often in shrubs. Captures aerial prey. May hover while foraging. Seen in scattered groups in association with other species (e.g., Golden- crowned Kinglets, nuthatches, and chickadees).

Reproduction:
Female incubatesClick word for definition 5-11 eggs (usually 7-8), for about 12 days. Nestlings are downy and altricialClick word for definition, are tended by both parents, and fly at about 12 days.

Conservation:
Element Code: ABPBJ05020
Status: Protected nongame species
Global Rank: G5
State Rank: S5,NTMB
National Rank: N5B,N5N

Important State References:
Peterson, S.R. 1982. A preliminary survey of forest bird communities in northern Idaho. Northwest Sci. 56:287-298.


Photo by C. S. Robbins. ©2002.
Design by Ean Harker©1999, 2000.
Written by Jason Karl, 2000.