3 1/4-4 1/4" (8-11 cm). Olive-gray above, dirty white below. Yellow crown bordered with black; gray face with black eye-stripe. White wing bars and slightly notched tail.
Similar Species- Ruby-crowned Kinglet, Hutton's Vireo
Song begins with raspy, high notes that ascend slowly, faster ascending notes, and ends with an upward, whistled chatter.
Breeds from southern Alaska, east to Newfoundland, and south to central California, southern Arizona, U.S.-Canadian border, and western North Carolina. Winters from south-coastal Alaska and southern Canada, south to northern Baja California, southwestern U.S., Guatemala, Gulf Coast, and Florida.
Feeds primarily on insects and their eggs (e.g., bark beetles, scale insects, and aphids). Drinks tree sap.
Builds hanging nest on branch near trunk. Forages among branches of trees. Often obtains prey while clinging to or hanging from foliage. In winter, seen in association with chickadees, Brown Creepers, and Downy Woodpeckers.
|Status:||Protected nongame species|
Langelier, L. 1983. Habitat selection of common breeding bird species in western spruce budworm outbreaks. M.S. Thesis, Univ. Idaho, Moscow. 119pp.