Icterus bullockii
(Bullock's Oriole)


Order: Passeriformes
Order Description: Passerines
Family: Icteridae
Family Description: Blackbirds, Orioles, & Meadowlarks

Physical Description:
7-8 1/2" (18-22 cm). Adult male has bright orange eyebrow, cheek, underparts, and rump; black crownClick word for definition, eyestripe, upper back, chin, and tail. Wings are black and white. Female is lighter gray and paler orange with a pale orange tail.

Similar Species- Hooded Oriole

Song:
Sweetly whistled whetew-whetew-whetew-whetew.

Distribution:
Breeds from southern Canada and all of U.S. (except extreme southeastern portions), to northern Mexico. Winters in central U.S., and south to northern South America.

Habitat:
Found in open or riparianClick word for definition woodlands, deciduousClick word for definition forest edges, partly-open situations with scattered trees, orchards, and shade trees. During migrationClick word for definition and in winter, also found in humid forest edges, second growth, and scrub. An Idaho study conducted in cottonwood forests showed Bullock's Orioles prefer habitat edges adjacent to agricultural landscapes.

Diet:
Eats insects, especially caterpillars; also eats various fruits and nectar.

Ecology:
Builds hanging nest in tree (usually deciduous). When not breeding, usually forms groups of 2-5 individuals (rarely up to 15); each group has definite home range. Sometimes forms large communal roostsClick word for definition. Gleans food from trees and shrubs; also takes food in air.

Reproduction:
Female incubatesClick word for definition 3-6 eggs (commonly 4-5), for 12-14 days. Young are tended by both parents, and leave nest at 12-14 days.

Conservation:
Element Code: ABPBXB9220
Status: Protected nongame species
Global Rank: G5
State Rank: S5,NTMB
National Rank: N5B,NZN

Important State References:
Saab, V.A. 1996. Influences of spatial scale and land-use practices on habitat relationships of breeding birds in cottonwood riparian forests. Ph.D. Dissertation, Univ. Colorado, Boulder. 140pp.


Photo by C. S. Robbins. ©2002 and C. Trost,© 1999
Design by Ean Harker©1999, 2000.
Written by Jason Karl, 2000.