7-8 1/2" (18-22 cm). Adult male has bright orange eyebrow, cheek, underparts, and rump; black crown, eyestripe, upper back, chin, and tail. Wings are black and white. Female is lighter gray and paler orange with a pale orange tail.
Similar Species- Hooded Oriole
Sweetly whistled whetew-whetew-whetew-whetew.
Breeds from southern Canada and all of U.S. (except extreme southeastern portions), to northern Mexico. Winters in central U.S., and south to northern South America.
Found in open or riparian woodlands, deciduous forest edges, partly-open situations with scattered trees, orchards, and shade trees. During migration and in winter, also found in humid forest edges, second growth, and scrub. An Idaho study conducted in cottonwood forests showed Bullock's Orioles prefer habitat edges adjacent to agricultural landscapes.
Eats insects, especially caterpillars; also eats various fruits and nectar.
Builds hanging nest in tree (usually deciduous). When not breeding, usually forms groups of 2-5 individuals (rarely up to 15); each group has definite home range. Sometimes forms large communal roosts. Gleans food from trees and shrubs; also takes food in air.
Female incubates 3-6 eggs (commonly 4-5), for 12-14 days. Young are tended by both parents, and leave nest at 12-14 days.
|Status:||Protected nongame species|
Saab, V.A. 1996. Influences of spatial scale and land-use practices on habitat relationships of breeding birds in cottonwood riparian forests. Ph.D. Dissertation, Univ. Colorado, Boulder. 140pp.