Pinicola enucleator
(Pine Grosbeak)


Order: Passeriformes
Order Description: Passerines
Family: Fringillidae
Family Description: Finches, Crossbills, and Grosbeaks

Physical Description:
8-10" (20-25 cm). Male has red head, breast, and back; dark tail. Gray, black, and white bars on wings; black eye with indistinct black line. Female and immature has chestnut crownClick word for definition and rump, gray elsewhere with black and white bars on wings.

Similar Species- White-winged Crossbill

Song:
Warbling with little variation in pitch (only 3 notes).

Distribution:
Breeds from western Alaska, east across northern Canada to Newfoundland, and south to central California, northern New Mexico, northern Alberta, central Manitoba, central Maine, and Nova Scotia. Winters from western Alaska and portions of western and southern Canada, south through breeding range.

Habitat:
Found in open coniferousClick word for definition (less commonly mixed coniferous/deciduous) forests and forest edges. During migrationClick word for definition and in winter, also found in deciduousClick word for definition forests, woodlands, second growth, and shrubbery.

Diet:
Feeds on wide variety of seeds. Also eats fruits and insects.

Ecology:
Builds cup-shaped nest, usually in coniferous tree, but may nest in shrub. Takes food from foliage or ground. gregariousClick word for definition; may gather in flocksClick word for definition of up to 100 birds.

Reproduction:
Female incubatesClick word for definition 2-6 eggs (usually 4), for 13-14 days. Young leave nest about 20 days after hatching.

Conservation:
Element Code: ABPBY03010
Status: Protected nongame species
Global Rank: G5
State Rank: S4
National Rank: N5

Important State References:
No references are available at this time.


Photo by Marcus Martin
Design by Ean Harker©1999, 2000.
Written by Jason Karl, 2000.